Thursday, April 8, 9 a.m.-5 p.m.

The School of Health Sciences will host its 2021 research conference virtually through Zoom. There will be limited in-person participation for the Stephens College community in Lela Raney Wood Hall, Windsor Auditorium, and other locations on campus.

This event is free and open to the public.

 

Highlights 

  • Virtual podium presentations
  • Participants will have an option to present their research posters in a socially distanced format in LRW as well as virtually at an additional time
  • Keynote speakers in Public Health and Medicine
  • Student-centered sessions including a careers panel for our future life scientists and opportunities for our future clinicians
  • High school students submitted work to present virtually with an option to compete for a Stephens College scholarship

 

Keynote Speakers 

Keynote I: “Someday You’ll Have a White Coat; It Does NOT Come With a Red Cape”

Dr. Amanda Wright, Associate Professor of Family Medicine & Interim Dean, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Marian University

Amanda WrightAmanda Wright, DO is the interim dean and associate professor of family medicine at Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine. Dr. Wright completed her undergraduate training at Saint Mary of the Woods College in Terre Haute, Indiana. She then completed her medical school training at the Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine and her family medicine residency at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria. Dr. Wright had a full spectrum family medicine (including OB) practice in Peoria, Illinois, and then transitioned into academic medicine. She was a faculty member, and later, the Osteopathic Family Medicine Program Director at her alma mater, the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria. She began her undergraduate medical education career at the Arkansas College of Osteopathic Medicine as the Associate Dean of Clinical Medicine and Director of International Medicine prior to joining Marian. 

Medical interests: Women’s health and obstetrics, global medicine, point of care ultrasound, social determinants of health impact on care, LGBTQA advocacy

Academic interests: Integrated curricular design, POCUS, quality improvement, team-based learning, and interprofessional education

Personal interests: horse back riding, trail running, rowing, travel (hopefully again soon!) and spending time with family (husband Cameron and sons Payton and Conlan)

Register in advance for Keynote I via Zoom >

 

Keynote II: “Health disparities and public health, from HIV to COVID and Beyond: A conversation with Drs Enid Schatz and Michelle Teti, Department of Public Health, University of Missouri”

Dr. Michelle Teti, Associate Professor of Public Health and Associate Chair, Public Health, University of Missouri 

Michelle TetiDr. Michelle Teti is the associate chair of the Department of Public Health in the School of Health Professions at the University of Missouri. She directs the bachelor and master of public health programs, and is a program affiliate in the Black Studies Program. Her educational accomplishments include a Master of Public Health (MPH) and a Doctorate in Community Health and Prevention (DrPH) from Drexel University in Philadelphia. She has also completed Visiting Professorships at the Center for AIDS Prevention at the University of California, San Francisco, in 2010-12 and 2015.

Dr. Teti has more than 20 years of experience conducting HIV and sexual health research with people living with and at risk for HIV. The premise of her work is that sick and disenfranchised people matter and know best what is needed to solve their complex health problems. She focuses on inquiries of how health disparities and social-structural vulnerabilities (poverty, racism, stigma, homophobia, sexism, etc.) affect individuals’ sexual and overall health decisions. She has been a lead and collaborating investigator on multiple HIV research projects and projects with vulnerable populations affected by health disparities, funded by the National Institutes of Health, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The Department of Defense, The Health Forward Foundation, and the Boone County Health Department, among others. She is also the North America editor for the International Journal of Qualitative Methods.

She is an expert in participatory research and in using qualitative and visual patient-driven methods to allow the experiences of people with HIV and other stigmatized illness to inform innovative public health questions and solutions. Her ultimate goal is to honor the PUBLIC in public health and for the products of her research to shape the development of effective, patient-centered, health programs and policies that lessen the burden of health disparities among vulnerable communities. Dr. Teti’s work has been disseminated in nearly 80 peer-reviewed publications and numerous national and international conferences.

 

Dr. Enid Schatz, Professor & Department Chair, Public Health, University of Missouri

Enid SchatzDr. Enid Schatz is a Professor and Chair of the Department of Public Health at the University of Missouri. She has been a faculty member in the School of Health Professions at the University of Missouri since 2006. Before that, she received her PhD in Demography & Sociology in 2002 from the University of Pennsylvania, and spent several years as a Post-Doctoral Fellow shared by the School of Public Health at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa and the University of Colorado, Boulder, Institute for Behavioral Science. For most of her career, her research has brought a gendered lens to examining the social and structural impacts of HIV on older persons’ physical health and social well-being in South Africa and Uganda. South Africa has high HIV prevalence (about 30%), but also a strong set of social welfare programs, which older persons can access. Uganda has a lower overall HIV prevalence rate (about 7%), but also fewer social welfare programs. Thus, it is important to understand the ways that carework for others, the loss of careers, and household dynamics in the context of poverty, migration, and the HIV epidemic affect older persons health and well-being. While early in the HIV epidemic, her work focused on the impact of HIV on older persons, their roles and responsibilities in households affected by HIV, and the ways that social welfare mediated their health and other needs, in more recent years her work has shifted to focus on the fact that the aging of African populations and roll out of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV has meant an increasing number of people aging with HIV, as well as larger numbers of those at risk and being infected at older ages. The health needs of these populations are significant; the UNAIDS 2014 Gap Report singled out older adults as a population that has been “left behind,” and who will require more attention if HIV response goals are to be met. Her projects in Uganda and South Africa are among the first to focus explicitly on the barriers for older persons to HIV care, including HIV testing, and ART access and adherence. In 2017, she spent 7 months with her family at the University of Western Cape in Cape Town, South Africa on a Fulbright fellowship. The work growing out of that fellowship includes collaborative research developing innovative tools to collect higher quality information on risk, health profiles and HIV testing, as well as interventions to increase older persons’ ART access and adherence, with an aim of improving older Africans’ overall health and well-being.

Register in advance for Keynote II via Zoom >

 

Conference Agenda

Thursday, April 8, 2021

 

9-9:30 a.m. Welcome & Opening Session – Windsor Auditorium; Dual Mode

Dr. Julia Moffitt, Dean, School of Health Sciences, Stephens College

Zoom registration >

 

9:30-10:20 a.m. Keynote I – Windsor Auditorium; Dual Mode

Someday You’ll Have a White Coat; It Does NOT Come With a Red Cape

Dr. Amanda Wright, Associate Professor of Family Medicine & Interim Dean, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Marian University

Zoom registration >

 

10:30-11:20 a.m. Center Stage: Spotlight on Student Research  – Windsor Auditorium; Dual Mode

Invited presentations from our exceptional undergraduate student research projects. Special award category. 

Zoom registration >

Presenting Author*

Title

Katie Richie

Applying Objectification Theory to Sexual Minority Women: What is the Role of Gender Expression?

Sam Holden

The Viability of Utilizing Canines as Medical Diagnostic Tools in Non-Laboratory Settings

Gracie Call

Retrospective analysis of pacing in a 100-mile ultramarathon endurance run: influence of sex, age and performance.

*Co-Authors noted in the abstract listing.  

 

11:30 a.m.-12:20 p.m. In-Person Poster Session – Lela Raney Wood Ballroom

Undergraduate Poster Presentations

Poster#

Presenting Author*

Title

1

Brittney M Eaton

Face touching and mask touching are related

2

Emma Williams

Relationship Between the pH and Surface Area of Pond Water in and Around Columbia, MO

3

Ashton Henry

Physical Activity as a Means to Improve Self-Regulation and Emotional Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of Literature

4

BIO 321 Anatomy & Physiology 

Reinventing Pasteur's Quadrant

5

Carissa R. Stevens

The Effect of a Medical Doctor’s Length of Time in Practice on Weight-Related Medical Bias
 

6

Melanie Sanchez

A review of non-pharmacological approaches to minimizing adverse reaction with NSAID use for pain in canines with osteoarthritis.

7

MacKenzie Christensen

Stereotype Threat & Women in STEM

8

Katie Richie

 

Applying Objectification Theory to Sexual Minority Women: What is the Role of Gender Expression?

 

*Co-Authors noted in the abstract listing.

 

Graduate Poster Presentations

Poster#

Presenting Author*

Title

9

Hannah Durham

The effect of flavonoids on inflammation processes

10

Morgan Bowden

The Importance of Patient Education on Adequate Sleep

11

Nada Abusalim

The Beneficial Effects of Fasting on Cardiovascular Health

12

Sarah Domingue

Stable Angina: Case Study Review

13

Jou Young Lee

Application of BRCA1/2 Genes

14

Elaina Adams

Acquired Frontline Defense: The Role of Vaccinations in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality

*Co-Authors noted in the abstract listing. 

 

12:30-1:20 p.m. Concurrent Session I

Room D: Virtual Faculty/Professional & Scientific Research Platform Presentations

Zoom registration >

Presenting Author*

Title

Felicia E Anunoby, MBA, MSN, APRN, FNP-BC

Improving Palliative Care Utilization for Minorities

Richard Oliver, Ph.D.

Global Rehabilitation Health Worker Certification: Global Agenda, Local Imperative

Kevin Flaherty, Ph.D.

How is the human brain unique, and how did it get that way?

*Co-Authors noted in the abstract listing.  

 

Room E: Pathology/Pathophysiology Virtual Poster

Zoom Registration >

Presenting Author*

Title

Kiaya S Pruitt, M.A

Survival of the Biofilm

Lydia Mueller

Hypoxia activates orexin neurons in rats 

Imoni K. Prince

Grain-Free Diet Linkage To Taurine Deficiency and Dilated Cardiomyopathy In Dogs: A Review

*Co-Authors noted in the abstract listing. 

 

Room F: Exercise & Environment Virtual Platform

Zoom Registration >

Presenting Author*

Title

Carissa R. Stevens

Changes in Heart Rate Variability Parameters During Exercise do not Reliably Predict Changes in Cardiac Autonomic Tone

Kimberlee Kunschick

How can exercise for pediatric patients increase recovery time and overall health?

Shelby Mahaney

Proposed Methods for decreasing the impact of Asian carp on Illinois waterways

 *Co-Authors noted in the abstract listing.

 

Student-centered Sessions:

1:30-2:20 p.m. Careers Panel – Zoom Room 1 – Dudley 105/106; Dual Mode

Think beyond the typical careers in the life sciences and learn about new and alternate career possibilities for your degree. 

Zoom registration >

  • Emily Graham '08, RHIA, CCS-P, Vice President Regulatory Affairs, Hart Health Strategies, Inc.
    Specializes in navigating and engaging in the federal legislative and regulatory policy landscape.
  • Dr. Sarah Burris '04, Scientific Applications Liaison at FUJIFILM VisualSonics, Inc.
    Specializes in multi-modal imaging and LAZR-X imaging platform combining ultra-high frequency ultrasound and photoacoustics. 
  • Kathleen A. Daley, Attorney and Partner, Finnegan Law
    Kathleen has significant experience in trial and appellate litigation. She has led litigation teams and been involved in all aspects of patent litigation. Her practice encompasses a wide range of technologies, such as mechanical devices, semiconductor devices, and pharmaceuticals, with a particular emphasis on medical devices. 
  • Laka Huyette, MS, RDN, LDN, CPT, Dietitian, exercise professional and wellness coach, Lakawell
    Specializes in functional nutrition and fitness coaching for those wanting to increase their health and longevity and decrease inflammatory and autoimmune related conditions.

 

1:30-2:20 p.m. Meet and Greet, Q&A with Dr. Wright – Zoom Room 2 – Pillsbury Science Center 206; Dual Mode

Future providers are invited to glean more insights in medicine and healthcare from keynote speaker Dr. Amanda Wright.

Zoom Registration >

 

2:30-3:20 p.m. Keynote II – Virtual Only

Health disparities and public health, from HIV to COVID and Beyond: A conversation with Drs Enid Schatz and Michelle Teti, Department of Public Health, University of Missouri

  • Dr. Michelle Teti, Associate Professor of Public Health and Associate Chair, Public Health, University of Missouri
  • Dr. Enid Schatz, Professor & Department Chair, Public Health, University of Missouri

Zoom registration >

 

3:30-4:20 p.m. Concurrent Session II

Concurrent Virtual Podium Sessions

Room J: Public Health Virtual Poster

Zoom Registration > 

Presenting Author*

Title

Emily Whistler

Effective vaccine education strategies to increase vaccine coverage in college students: a review

Beau Lucas and Ashton Henry

Food Insecurity Among Undergraduate Students

Taylor Mansour

Osteoporosis Knowledge Among Healthcare Workers

*Co-Authors noted in the abstract listing of the program. 

 

Room K: Junior Scientists/Clinicians Virtual Poster

Zoom Registration > 

Presenting Author*

Title

Amulya Agrawal

Causal Inference with Mendelian Randomization to Explore Risk Factors of Diabetes

Emma Williams

Relationship Between the pH and Surface Area of Pond Water in and Around Columbia, MO

Brittney M Eaton

Face touching and mask touching are related

*Co-Authors noted in the abstract listing of the program. 

 

Room L: Healthcare & Therapeutic Interventions Virtual Platform & Poster

Zoom Registration > 

Presenting Author*

Title

Sydney Cacy

Physician Assistants: A Beneficial Addition to the ICU

Morgan E. Puckett

Examining the effectiveness of equine assisted therapy (EAT) on Autism-Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in children and adolescents.

Saffron B. Lancaster

Assessing Stress and Stress Mitigation Strategies in Physician Assistant Students

*Co-Authors noted in the abstract listing of the program.

 

4:30 – 5 p.m. Closing Session; Virtual Only

Dr. Julia Moffitt, Dean, School of Health Sciences, Stephens College

Zoom Registration > 

 

Abstracts

10:30-11:20 a.m. Center Stage: Spotlight on Student Research – Windsor Auditorium; Dual Mode

 

Applying Objectification Theory to Sexual Minority Women: What is the Role of Gender Expression? Presenting Author: Kaite Ritchie

Objectification theory was proposed to describe the way women internalize cultural sexual objectification (CSO) in patriarchal societies (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). According to objectification theory, continuous exposure to CSO leads women to internalize CSO to the point that they view themselves through the sexualized lens that their culture views them, or, self-objectify. Since objectification theory was proposed, feminist scholars have attempted to answer the question of whether women in same-sex relationships would be less vulnerable to the effects of CSO and self-objectification, compared to women in other-sex relationships, since women in same-sex relationships should hypothetically feel less pressure to live up the sexualized gaze of men. Research has shown that lesbians experience approximately the same amount of self-objectification as heterosexual women do (Hill & Fischer, 2007). Furthermore, research has revealed that sexual minority women‚ (SMW) gender expression is related to indices of internalization of beauty standards (Heinrichs-Beck & Syzmanski, 2016). Since no study has specifically addressed the relationship between self-objectification and SMW‚ gender expression, in this study researchers used quantitative methods to empirically examine whether women‚ experiences of self-objectification are significantly related to their gender-expression. A correlational analysis revealed that among SMW scoring as more feminine in regard to appearance and gender roles was related to experiencing greater self-objectification, whereas scoring as more masculine in regard to emotional expression is related to greater self-objectification. Since self-objectification is theorized to be a direct result of CSO, the findings of this study suggest that gender expression may also play a role in SMW‚ experiences of CSO. To test this, the researchers conducted a second study that examined SMW‚ gender expression, experiences of self-objectification, and experiences of CSO. The findings of this study were not statistically significant which suggests that other factors besides CSO may mediate the relationship between gender expression and self-objectification.

 

The Viability of Utilizing Canines as Medical Diagnostic Tools in Non-Laboratory Settings
Presenting Author: Sam Holden

INTRODUCTION: The superior olfactory abilities of canines have long been recognized and utilized for multiple detection purposes. Their ability to smell volatile organic compounds means they can be trained to work as medical detection dogs. The purpose of this review was to assess the viability of using canine olfaction abilities to medically diagnose, or initiate diagnostic testing, in individuals in non-laboratory settings.

METHODS: Using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Ebscohost databases, papers were narrowed down to be either literature reviews, clinical trials, or randomized controlled trials. Most studies cited were published within the past five years, and no study older than fifteen years old was cited. Keywords such as‚ canine detection abilities, canine olfactory detection, medical detection dog, infectious disease detection, and‚ canine olfaction‚ yielded plenty of results. RESULTS: Results from most studies indicate tremendous success training dogs to act as diagnostic tools, usually by sniffing a sample and giving an alert for positives. Data definitively indicated that it is possible to rely on dogs for accurate results and in some cases, preferred to laboratory tests. The practicality of using medical detection dogs was shown to have potential, especially for mass screening to prevent or curb disease outbreak. However, a current lack of national standardized training or testing and the high dropout rates for in-training working dogs pose an obstacle for the implementation of these dogs in a variety of settings. A standardized procedure to test the olfactory abilities of dogs and the increased use of cloned working dogs would help overcome some of the obstacles that work against the widespread use of medical detection canines.

CONCLUSIONS: In the face of inaccessible healthcare systems and inevitable future disease outbreaks, the use of medical detection dogs provides an avenue for rapid, inexpensive mass testing and would greatly supplement existing diagnostic tools.

 

Retrospective analysis of pacing in a 100-mile ultramarathon endurance run: influence of sex, age and performance. Presenting Author: Gracie Call; Co-Author: Julia A. Moffitt, Ph.D.

PURPOSE: Even or negative split pacing strategies in long-distance running have been well-established to yield the best performances up to the marathon distance. Additionally, women have been found to pace better than men in the marathon. Optimal pacing strategy and sex differences in ultramarathon running are not well-known. The purpose of this study was to determine pacing strategies employed by the fastest finishers in a 100-mile distance run and determine if any sex differences exist. METHODS: Ten years (2010-2019) of finish times from 991 men and 462 women in the Umstead 100-mile endurance run were obtained from publicly available data. The course is a 12.5-mile loop repeated 8 times over relatively flat terrain with 16 splits recorded for each runner at checkpoints (CP) located at miles 5.65 and 12.5. The pace was normalized by expressing the data as %mean running speed (%MRS) and compared by sex and quartile finish. Data were statistically analyzed by one- and two-way ANOVA for repeated measures. RESULTS: Women had a significantly lower %MRS at CPs 2, 3, 4, and 5 as compared to men and had a significantly higher %MRS at the 16th and final CP. Quartile analysis revealed that the fastest runners in the 1st quartile adopted a significantly more even pacing strategy than 2nd, 3rd, or 4th and 2nd quartile finishers adopted a significantly more even pacing strategy than 3rd or 4th quartile finishers. Differences in pacing were greatest early in the race with the best performers beginning at 125+1.2 %MRS, while the poorest performers began the race at 140+1.2 %MRS. While there were few sex differences in 1st, 2nd, or 3rd quartile finishers across CPs, in the 4th quartile women adopted a significantly more conservative pace in CPs 1-8, 10 and had a significantly higher %MRS at CPs 14, 15, and 16. CONCLUSIONS: In the 100-mile distance, overall women adopted a more conservative pacing strategy at earlier CPs and finished with a faster %MRS as compared to men. Runners who performed better (finished in higher quartiles) adopted a more even pacing strategy as compared to performers who finished in lower quartiles. The sex difference in pacing was most striking in the 4th quartile with women adopting a more even pacing strategy than men through the first half of the race and finishing at a faster %MRS in the final 3 CPs of the 100-mile distance"

 

11:30 a.m.-12:20 p.m. In-Person Poster Session; Lela Raney Wood Ballroom

 

Undergraduate Poster Presentations

 

Face touching and mask touching behaviors are related.
Presenting Author: Brittney Eaton; Co-Author(s): Victoria La, Emily McCutcheon, Kaylee Morton, Julia A. Moffitt, Ph.D.

Face touching is a concern with spreading disease, especially in recent times with the 2019 Novel Coronavirus, Covid-19. Current recommendations from the CDC suggest that wearing a face mask will help communities reduce the spread of Covid-19 when worn correctly and consistently in public settings. Current studies suggest that wearing a face mask decreases the risk of self-inoculation by reducing face touching behaviors. Taking all the above into consideration this led to the hypothesis: Wearing a face mask will reduce face touching behaviors. One limitation that was encountered during this study was the mask wearing ordinance, enacted by the City of Columbia and Stephens College. Due to this, unmasked baseline data was unable to be observed. Therefore, the hypothesis was revised: There is a relationship between face and mask touching behaviors. In order to test the second hypothesis, twelve college students were observed for one hour while the number of face touches and mask touches was recorded. The number of face and mask touches varied widely among the observed participants. A correlation coefficient between mask touching and face touching revealed a strong positive relationship R (10) = .87, p< .05. As mask touching increases, so too does face touching. There was a shared variance (r2) of 76%. The data suggested that wearing a mask does not influence self-inoculation behaviors as individuals who tended to engage in mask touching behaviors also touched their face. Since the stress level of the participants may play a role, future studies should observe participants in a wider variety of setting and assess stress levels during observations.

 

Relationship Between the PH and Surface Area of Pond Water in and Around Columbia, MO Presenting Author: Emma Williams, Co-Authors: Sierra Woodall, Heaven Thompson, Julia A. Moffitt, Ph.D.

Purpose: Environmental pollutants and climate change are having an increasingly negative impact on the chemical environment of freshwater ponds. Most of these pollutants are acidic in nature and negatively impacts the health of fish and plants. This would suggest that smaller bodies of water may be more vulnerable to acidic pollutants. As such, we hypothesized that there would be a direct relationship between surface area and pH of freshwater ponds. Methods: Nine pond sites were selected in different areas within the city limits of Columbia, Missouri. A pH meter was obtained and calibrated at each location of the bond with a two-point calibration method. Three samples from each pond were tested and the pH levels and temperature were recorded. Surface area was measured by Google Earth. Data was analyzed by graphing the correlation between pH levels and surface area in hectares of each pond. Results: Correlation analysis between the pH and surface area was r2 = 0.02. There was one outlier observed within the data points. When the outlier was removed the correlation, coefficient increased drastically to r2 = 0.65. Conclusion: When the largest surface area pond was removed from the analysis, our data suggests that there was a strong correlation between pH levels and surface area. These data suggest that the ecosystem of small ponds may be more vulnerable to environmental changes.

 

Physical Activity as a Means to Improve Self-Regulation and Emotional Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of Literature. Presenting Author: Ashton Henry

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is accompanied by a myriad of symptoms. Of those symptoms, emotional processing and regulation are often affected and difficult to manage. In recent years physical activity has shown promise in providing many children autonomic regulation needed to process emotion and self-regulate executive functions at more normative levels than otherwise exhibited. To date physical activity strategies have been implemented on a small scale in both therapy settings and school settings with promising results. The purpose of this review was to examine current studies of physical activity strategies in children with ASD and determine feasibility for wide scale implementation. EBSCO, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies published in the last ten years involving physical activity interventions in school settings. Other searches included physical activity and emotional regulation in children with ASD. Physical activity was shown to improve emotional processing and self-regulation, as well as other executive functions such as decision making, strategizing, and overall anxiety. One study found that physical activities that required multi step cognition facilitated greater ability to follow directions within classroom settings. Furthermore, duration and intensity of physical activity affect the longevity of effect on emotional processing and regulation, but even short light activities throughout the day improved these symptoms. Both therapy and school settings were able to implement positive strategies and obtain these outcomes. Physical activity is a promising strategy for facilitation of emotional processing and regulation in children with ASD. Wide Scale implementation of these strategies in both therapy and school settings could prove beneficial for children with ASD, particularly in school settings. Difficulty could arise in finding safe spaces to implement short activity breaks daily, however the activities need not be very strenuous or large scale.

 

Reinventing Pasteur's Quadrant. Presenting Authors: Biology 321: Anatomy & Physiology class; Karrie Armstrong, Sydney Cacy, Gracie Call, Sydney Harrison, Aston Henry, Samantha Holden, Amanda Kujiraoka, Lena Lalka, Beau Lucas, Imoni Prince, Morgan Puckett, Carissa Stevens, Emily Whistler, Allyssa Wilmoth

 

A great challenge of science has been how to best convey how basic research translates into a societal application. A traditional model utilized to explain this process was a linear pipeline, which suggested that science was a slow incremental process in which small application-free discoveries need to be built upon to ultimately have a meaningful benefit to society. This model is too simplistic, such as the depiction of research and innovation as opposing forces rather than a blend of work by numerous scientists. In 1997, author Daniel E Stokes published a book entitled Pasteur's Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation which challenged the traditional view of the science-to-application pathway. To better explain the various aspects of research, Stokes created a quadrant model that demonstrated the nuances between work and tangible societal benefits. This new model, now called Pasteur's Quadrant, focuses primarily on the motivations behind scientific research and provides examples of scientists to represent each category. The categories are 1) research to fill in gaps of understanding, basic research, 2) research for the primary purpose of application and development, and 3) research for a specific application. But while this updated model makes it easier to understand how knowledge develops into an application, it continues to fall short in providing accurate representation. Research is conducted by scientists all over the world and the field once populated primarily by white men is now more diverse and culturally rich than ever. Therefore, Stokes' model begs reinvention to reflect all broad range of faces of science progress more accurately. Here the Stephens College Anatomy and Physiology class reimagined Pasteur’s Quadrant, now populated with female scientists who contributed to each of the three categories enumerated above, aiming to give proper credence to their important advancements.

 

The Effect of a Medical Doctor’s Length of Time in Practice on Weight-Related Medical Bias. Presenting Author: Carissa R. Stevens

It has been widely demonstrated that medical bias can impact patient outcomes. Medical weight bias is also well-documented. Accepted dogma in the medical community holds that dieting and exercise are the best tools to treat obesity, but new research brings this into question. Unfortunately, even with these new findings societal attitudes towards obese people have become increasingly negative over recent years. So, how do science and societal attitudes effect the training of Medical Doctors (MDs)? The proposed study aims to determine how medical weight bias is changing by comparing the implicit bias of newly trained MDs with that of their more experienced counterparts. This study hypothesizes that newly trained MDs will exhibit lower levels of anti-fat bias due to recent developments in the medical field. This study will utilize the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit bias among MDs. Length of time in practice will be determined using a standard questionnaire. Data will be analyzed using a paired t-test comparing the two phases of the IAT. Correlation analysis will be performed on the IAT results and subject information. Based on societal trends it is expected that MDs will show high levels of anti-fat, pro-thin bias. If the previously stated hypothesis is validated there will be a significant positive correlation between length of time in practice and amount of anti-fat bias. If the null hypothesis is retained there will be no significant correlation or a negative correlation. This study aims to provide useful information on how the prevalence of medical bias is changing over time. This information can help determine how practicing medicine affects biases by examining how newly trained MDs as compared to experienced ones. This can function as a steppingstone for further research into how biases can change over time and what factors contribute to this change.

 

A review of non-pharmacological approaches to minimizing adverse reaction with NSAID use for pain in canines with osteoarthritis. Presenting Author: Melanie Sanchez

INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of chronic pain reported in dogs. Currently there is no cure for OA, and treatment goals include minimizing pain and improving quality of life. The current and most opted for treatment is the long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, NSAIDs have a high rate of adverse reactions when used long term, such as kidney, liver and gastrointestinal issues that can be fatal. The purpose of this review was to evaluate alternative forms of treatment that could potentially reduce the dosage of NSAIDS administered thus, reducing adverse effects while providing optimal pain relief. METHODS: The literature reviewed for this study was found by search on the EBSCO and PubMed database. Keywords in the search were ‚ OA canines, OA canine treatment, OA cannabidiol dogs. Literature was limited to articles published in the last 10 years. RESULTS: Collectively, articles stated that NSAIDs don’t provide optimal relief yet are often recommenced to help manage dogs with OA. Although multiple non-pharmacological approaches exist, platelet rich plasma (PRP), cannabidiol (CBD) are increasing in use by the veterinary medical field. PRP contain growth factors that help in the healing process and promote tissue growth with no adverse reactions. CBD contains anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties with minimal adverse reactions. Data from studies evaluating the effectiveness of CBD show that oral transmucosal administration was strongest compared to other forms of CBD. Additionally, data supports the use of PRP, and dogs show significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the additional treatment of PRP, and CBD can improve OA dog’s quality of life. Decreasing the dosage of NSAIDs, in theory, should greatly reduce the chances of having liver, kidney or gastrointestinal issues. However, a trial with both the treatments combined is needed to determine the best route for future applications.

 

Stereotype Threat & Women in STEM. Presenting Author: Mackenzie Christensen; Co-Author: Crina Silasi-Mansat, Ph.D.

Stereotype threat as a social phenomenon is seen within marginalized groups and can be detrimental to performance. In order to study the effects of stereotype threat among women when performing traditionally masculine tasks, we had participants take 30 minutes to complete 30 multiple choice math questions. After completing the questions, participants were moved on to two short questionnaires on anxiety. We believe that an increase in stereotype threat will result in increased anxiety, which will then result in decreased math performance abilities among participants. We also believe that in our control condition with no exposure to stereotype threat, participants would perform better on the math questions and show lower signs of anxiety.

 

Graduate Poster Presentations

Application of BRCA1/2 Genes. Presenting Author: Jou Young Lee; Co-Authors: Ally Mattesen, Carla Miller, April Peters, James Wehmeier

This will be a public education poster discussing genomics and the impact of its detection of BRCA 1 and 2 genes. These are genes that are commonly used to identify a person's risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. Topics discussed will cover an overview of genomics, how it affects the future of medicine, and the identification and treatment of malignancy as it pertains to BRCA 1 and 2 genes. Screening and management of persons for BRCA 1 and 2 genes will be highlighted through current medical association guidelines and current research. Included will be an overview of the associated increased risk of developing ovarian or breast cancer for those who are carriers of BRCA 1 and 2 genes. Recommended guidance of who should be screened for these genes and how patients can obtain this testing will be presented. In addition, current recommendations, treatment, and prognosis for those who test positive for these genes will also be covered. This presentation will give a detailed overview of how medical professionals can use genetic testing to assess patient risk and modify treatment of ovarian and breast cancer.

 

The effect of flavonoids on inflammation processes. Presenting Author: Hannah Durham; Co-Authors: Tara McKean, Meghan Gardiner, Amanda Hakes, Casey Yocks Hessler

Free radicals are reactive oxygen species and a result of normal biochemical functions that attack cells in the body, ultimately leading to cellular damage. This process can lead to increased inflammation and chronic disease. Our research seeks to show how flavonoids, which can only be introduced by diet, can reduce the risk of inflammation causing disease processes. Inflammation is at the root of many chronic diseases that plague many Americans such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, and autoimmune disorders.

 

The Importance of Patient Education on Adequate Sleep. Presenting Author: Morgan Bowden;  Co-Authors: Brandon Vorkink, Sam Prichard, Taylor Spruell, & Christine Hughes

According to The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society, the average adult needs seven to nine hours of sleep per night in order to sustain long term health, however in 2014 more than one third of Americans reported obtaining less than seven hours of sleep per night. Many studies have shown that sleep deprivation is associated with hypertension and inflammatory processes increasing one's risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States. Studies have also shown that sleep deprivation can alter hormones that regulate appetite resulting in greater daily caloric intake leading to obesity. Lastly, studies have shown an association between sleep deprivation and cognitive impairment, short term memory, and concentration. Overall, the importance of patient education on receiving seven to nine hours of sleep is evident through various research studies on the consequences of sleep deprivation including: increasing cardiovascular and obesity risk, decreased cognitive function, short-term memory, and concentration.

 

The Beneficial Effects of Fasting on Cardiovascular Health. Presenting Author: Nada Abusalim; Co-Authors: Liz East, Justine Hurst, Eljesa Hyseni, and Slav Puyat

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in both men and women in the United States. In the search of optimal prevention of cardiovascular disease in the population, providers should not overlook simple lifestyle modifications such as fasting. Fasting has been shown to have a positive effect on blood pressure, lipid levels, and insulin sensitivity. Fasting decreases levels of LDL, which is the most important factor in decreasing the risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. When glucose stores are exhausted as the result of fasting, fatty acids become the main energy source in the body, resulting in decreased levels of circulating lipids. In addition to reducing LDL levels, fasting is also correlated with a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Depleted circulating glucose and glycogen storage levels also increase insulin sensitivity, reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, a major comorbidity in cardiovascular disease. In addition to incredible health benefits, fasting is an easy, cost-effective, and exceptionally safe lifestyle modification that would benefit the majority of patients in the primary care setting.

 

Stable Angina: Case Study Review. Presenting Author: Sarah Domingue; Co-Authors: Angela Beasley, Isaac Dodson, Gaganpreet Kaur, Katie Medeiros

A 45-year-old man, M.J., presents to his primary care clinic with a chief complaint of chest pain after walking for a while. He tells us this has been going on for 3 months. He describes his pain as diffuse and radiating throughout his chest. The pain occurs during physical exertion but resolves with exercise cessation. Mr. J. does suffer from hypertension and hyperlipidemia. He is on appropriate medication to manage these diagnoses. He denies any tobacco and recreational drug use, but he does drink 3-4 beers per week. Physical exercise is limited to less than 2 days per week. A physical exam on this patient had no acute findings. Diagnostics tests and labs ordered include a chest XR and EKG and troponin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL. The diagnostic tests were all within normal limits. Ultimately, this patient has the classic presentation of stable angina. Stable angina is a form of heart disease, the first of 4 stages leading to a heart attack if not controlled. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. With early diagnosis, this disease can be managed and many deaths can be prevented. It is important to inform the public about the risk factors that can precipitate this disease.

 

Acquired Frontline Defense: The Role of Vaccinations in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality. Presenting Author: Elaina Adams; Co-Authors: Mary Roberts, Natasha Lobosky, Brandon Lewis, and Eric Scott

Vaccinations are an important tool utilized to combat infectious disease and ultimately reduce morbidity and mortality. Despite the overwhelming amount of evidence available to the public supporting vaccinations and their importance, many continue to question their necessity. The goal of this study is to provide the public with evidence-based information in a simplistic way outside of the influences of social media and news platforms in order to emphasize the positive impacts vaccines have on human life expectancy. Through a literature search across several websites, results of previous studies involving several different vaccines and their effect on improving mortality and increasing life expectancy were reviewed. Results of several studies displayed ample evidence that vaccines reduce the number of infections and therefore deaths from the disease of interest in each study, which resulted in an increased life expectancy for populations. The positive implications of vaccines cannot be underemphasized when one considers the immediate benefits and future impact on our lives and society.

 

12:30-1:20 p.m. Concurrent Session I

Room D: Virtual Faculty/Professional & Scientific Research Platform Presentations

 

Improving Palliative Care Utilization for Minorities. Presenting Author: Felicia E Anunoby, MBA, MSN, APRN, FNP-BC

Introduction: Eliminating health disparities is one of the overarching goals of Healthy People 2020, with the goal of achieving health equity and improving the health of all groups. Palliative care is underutilized by minorities due to cultural barriers and lack of access to services. This paper explores the gap in palliative care services for minorities and suggests a strategy to improve utilization among minorities by increased referral rates of minority patients to palliative care services.

 

Global Rehabilitation Health Worker Certification: Global Agenda, Local Imperative. Presenting Author: Richard Oliver, Ph.D.

Rehabilitation, seen as a disability-specific service needed only by few of the world's population, has not been prioritized in countries and is under-resourced. A rehabilitation-ready health workforce is potentially the most important resource for improving functioning and the quality of life for the 2.41 billion people worldwide needing this care. In April 2019, CGFNS International, Inc., and the Association of Schools Advancing Health Professions (ASAHP) partnered to respond to the World Health Organization's Rehab 2030, which emphasizes the need for global action by professional organizations, development agencies, and civil society to develop and maintain a sustainable workforce for rehabilitation under different healthcare models in different economies. The global certification framework presented in this presentation provides a mechanism to validate rehabilitation knowledge and practice competence of individual health workers. The impact of certification on upgrading rehabilitation education and upskilling the world's rehabilitation health workforce cannot be overstated. The above-mentioned work was recently highlighted in the Journal of Allied Health and the work of this team will be highlighted by the presenter. To Dutka J, Oliver RE, Akinci F, Beissner K, Bharadwaj SV, Brandt LC, Curtis C, Gunter CD, Henzi DL, Kovic M, Winistorfer WL, Wong MS, Zipp GP. Global Rehabilitation Health Worker Certification: Global Agenda, Local Imperative. J Allied Health. 2021 Spring;50(1):3-8. PMID: 33646244.

 

How is the human brain unique, and how did it get that way? Presenting Author: Kevin Flaherty, Ph.D.

Among the most extraordinary features of human evolution are the myriad changes to the size and structure of the human brain. Humans have the largest brain relative to body size of any vertebrate. The largest regional expansions within human brain occurred in the cerebral cortex, which is itself the largest structure in our brains. Comparisons of the size of regions in the cerebral cortex with non-human primates such as chimpanzees and macaque monkeys reveal interesting patterns about the way that human cortex has changed. Several cortical regions that process sensory and motor information coming directly from the thalamus, including primary visual cortex and primary motor cortex, are much smaller than would be expected based on the overall size of our brain. However, other regions of cortex that are known to function in behaviors that are distinct in humans, such as human language and social interaction, are massively expanded relative to other primates. These regions, known as association cortex, integrate information from several areas of the brain and are crucial in generating the massive degree of human behavioral diversity observable across human culture. Recently, technological advances in genetics and developmental biology have enabled researchers to connect gene mutations in the human lineage to evolutionary changes in the development of the human brain that produce some of the architectural changes in the cerebral cortex that make human brains distinct. These genetic mutations account for anatomical changes that vary in scale from the overall size of the brain to the connections between cortical regions, and even to the structure of individual neurons.

 

Room E: Pathology/Pathophysiology Virtual Poster

 

Survival of the Biofilm. Presenting Author: Kiaya S Pruitt, M.A

Biofilm based infections are treated using the T.I.M.E method and antimicrobial dressings. The process is done every two weeks until the infection is cleared but is not proactive. In a pilot study, soil microbes were isolated and assayed for biofilm formation. This project investigates whether biofilms can still be formed when the bacterial milieu contains non-biofilm-forming bacterial species. Four bacteria species were used during this experiment. Two isolated bacteria formed biofilms and the other two isolated bacteria were unable to form biofilms. The cultures grew for 22 hours in an aerobic incubator set at 37°C. After incubation, two trials of gram staining and biofilm assays were performed. The biofilm assay was done to determine if a combination of non-biofilm-forming bacteria and biofilm-forming bacteria could produce a biofilm. In trial 1, the mixed bacteria still formed a biofilm but to a lesser extent then the positive control. The gram staining assay was done to determine if both bacteria were present in the mixed sample. In trial 1, the mixed sample was majority pink (gram negative). Trial 2 assays were deemed inconclusive for both assays due to the negative control yielding positive results, indicating contamination. In conclusion, non-biofilm forming bacteria were capable of decreasing the production of biofilms. A possible extension of this work could be in using Non-biofilm-forming bacteria as a therapy to treat notoriously chronic biofilm bacterial infections.

 

Hypoxia activates orexin neurons in rats. Presenting Author: Lydia Mueller; Co-Authors: Eileen M. Hasser, and Kevin J. Cummings (Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri)

Hypoxia is when there is reduced oxygen in the body. It can be a result of higher altitude, reduced breathing, or reduced blood flow. Hypoxia is associated with cardiorespiratory disease, such as sleep apnea, hypertension, and heart failure which, together, have been the leading killer of Americans since 1920. Peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies detect reduced oxygen and initiate cardiorespiratory and autonomic responses that mitigate tissue hypoxia. However, altered peripheral chemoreflex function can also lead to sleep apnea, hypertension and heart failure.  Afferent signals from the carotid body are transmitted to the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), both of which participate in the response to hypoxia. Orexin neurons in the lateral, dorsomedial and perifornical hypothalamus project to these nuclei and can therefore potentially be involved in regulating cardiorespiratory function. For example, orexin has been shown to facilitate the central chemoreflex response to increased CO2. The role of orexin in the chemoreflex cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxia is unknown. We hypothesized orexin neurons that specifically project to the nTS and PVN are activated by acute hypoxia and contribute to cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxia. As a first step to test this hypothesis, we exposed rats to normoxic (21% O2; n=3) or hypoxic (10% O2; n=3) gas for 2 hours. We then used immunohistochemistry to identify orexin-positive, Fos-positive (to identify activated neurons), and dual-labelled neurons in the lateral, medial and perifornical hypothalamus. We found that hypoxia tends to activate orexin neurons in a specific part of the perifornical hypothalamus. These preliminary data suggest that orexin neurons are involved in the cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia. In future studies, we will assess whether these activated orexin neurons project to the nTS and/or PVN, as well as the physiological role of them in cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxia.

 

Grain-Free Diet Linkage to Taurine Deficiency and Dilated Cardiomyopathy In Dogs: A Review. Presenting Author: Imoni K. Prince

Since 2014 there has been a dramatic increase in the number of reports regarding a possible link between grain-free diets and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). DCM is secondary to taurine deficiencies, amongst other factors, and has been known to affect large dog breeds genetically. However, some of the cases included dogs that don't inherit the disease but were put on a grain-free diet, which led to them developing DCM. The focus of this review will be based on the linkage of the diet and the disease. With growing concerns from pet owners and this issue making more of an appearance presently, a research question for this review was created: Is a grain-free diet the cause of DCM in dogs due to it possibly causing dogs to be taurine deficient? In order to answer the research question, information was gathered from secondary and primary sources retrieved primarily from the PubMed database. Other information was retrieved from outside sources. Keywords that were included to help with the research: cardiomyopathy in dogs, dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs, grain-free diet dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs, taurine deficiency in dogs. The search data range was limited to 2012 - 2021. From the gathered information, golden retrievers were found to be most susceptible, and so the studies were mostly conducted around this breed. The results of those studies, except one, showed that the grain-free diet did have an effect on taurine levels in the dogs, but further research was needed. The excluded study found that the grain-free diet induced other medical concerns, but none that were related to the lowering of taurine levels that would lead to DCM. Further research is still needed before it can be definitively proven that a grain-free diet will cause taurine levels to fall and ultimately lead to DCM being developed in dogs.

 

Room F: Exercise & Environment Virtual Platform

 

Changes in Heart Rate Variability Parameters During Exercise do not Reliably Predict Changes in Cardiac Autonomic Tone. Presenting Author: Carissa R. Stevens; Co-Author: Julia Moffitt, Ph.D.

The use of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis to reflect cardiac autonomic tone in humans at rest is well established. However, the use of HRV to derive cardiac autonomic tone during exercise is controversial. The present study sought to determine if changes in HRV parameters during exercise in two body positions reliably predicted changes in cardiac autonomic tone during exercise. Two groups of subjects completed supine (S; n=10) or upright (U; n=13) cycling exercise. HRV was recorded continuously at 1,000 Hz for 20 minutes of rest prior to exercise, 15 minutes during exercise at 40-65% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and 10 minutes of recovery post-exercise using a Lead II electrocardiogram. Unpaired t-tests were used to compare the delta values derived from the difference between spectral HRV parameters at rest and exercise between groups. Neither change in heart rate nor change in SDNN were significant between groups. Changes in frequency domain indices were significantly (p<0.05) different comparing S and U cycling. The %LF Power increased in S (4.3+3.3) and decreased in U (-8.5+4.5) while %HF decreased in S (-12.5+5.0) there was little change in U (0.63+1.8) and an increase in LF/HF ratio in S (1.1+0.4) and decreased in U (-1.3+0.9). Total power decreased in both groups (S: -3961+881 vs. U: -3412+1019 ms2). Because HRV parameters did not predictably change according to cardiac autonomic tone during exercise, it is hypothesized that HRV analysis during exercise reflects changes in ventilation and peripheral hemodynamics. This study was limited by use of different groups of subjects for supine versus upright exercise. Future studies intend to verify these findings by having the same group of subjects undergo exercise in both body positions to clarify the mechanisms behind the primary findings.

 

How can exercise for pediatric patients increase recovery time and overall health? Presenting Author: Kimberlee Kunschick

PURPOSE: Every year in the United States over sixteen thousand children from the birth to the age of nineteen are diagnosed with cancer. Although survival rates are at an all-time high (nearly eighty-five percent) some of the side effects that come along with cancer treatment can lead to lifelong health conditions, such as osteoporosis. With a little exercise (as long as doctors deem the patient able) from a daily regimen, pediatric patients can see many short and long-term benefits. The goal of this is to review the most optimal ways for patients to exercise effectively and help reduce side effects. METHODS: From the past ten years (2011 to 2021) of studies done from patients aged 0 to 19 who are going through or recovering from cancer treatments. Literary reviews were obtained from PubMed, American Cancer Society and National pediatric cancer. Keywords used were Pediatric Cancer, exercise during cancer treatment and physical activity for pediatric cancer. RESULTS: Results obtained from these literary reviews showed that increased physical activity (even slightly) in pediatric patients has showed major improvement in their side effect reactions (less fatigue and nausea) and has also showed improvement long term with their mental health and muscular movements. This increase in movement has been able to help patients take treatment without taking as much of a toll on their body. CONCLUSIONS: This review of literature indicates that increased physical activity in patients going though chemotherapy and recovering from chemotherapy have remarkable results from a decrease in their side effects (whether it be long or short term). The results shown in these review articles have proven that even the slightest increase in exercise for these patients can make a big difference in their mental and physical health whether it's during their treatment or after when they are in remission.

 

Proposed Methods for decreasing the impact of Asian carp on Illinois waterways. Presenting Author: Shelby Mahaney

Abstract: Proposed Methods for decreasing the impact of Asian carp on Illinois waterways

Purpose: The negative effects of Asian carp on Illinois waterway ecosystems has been established over the last 20 years and many state agencies have been collaborating to determine the best ways to prevent further spread and mitigate the damage done by these invasive species There has been no method found most effective in determining the spawning locations or controlling the population of these invasive species. The goal of this study is to couple the use of hydrodynamic data and bioactive chemical barriers to determine probable spawning locations for Asian carp and prevent them from spawning. Proposed Methods: We propose to use hydrodynamic data collected over the course of the last 10 years, along with meteorological data and reverse-time egg transport analysis to determine probable spawning locations for Asian carp. Once probable locations are determined, teams will be deployed to treat potential spawning locations with a bioactive chemical (number of test sites/chemicals to be tested is dependent on identified spawning locations) This study will measure for a decrease in fish at spawning locations over previous years. Some potential negatives of this study could include a negative effect on local fish populations. In order to combat this, native fish species in the area will be monitored for health effects through a catch and release program as well as a self-report system available for citizens to report any concerns they see. Expected Results: It is expected that the targeted application of bioactive chemicals will promote fewer fish entering the prime spawning locations and thus, will reduce the number of eggs released. Expected Impact: The expected impact of this study is it will successfully identify spawning locations for invasive carp species, as well as assess the potential for bioactive chemicals for use as potential barriers.

 

3:30-4:20 p.m. Concurrent Session II

 

Room J: Public Health Virtual Poster

 

Effective vaccine education strategies to increase vaccine coverage in college students: a review. Presenting Author: Emily Whistler

INTRODUCTION: The distribution and administration of the COVID-19 vaccine throughout the United States has begun almost a year after the start of the pandemic. The internet has been a useful tool for communication during the coronavirus pandemic, but it has also become a source of misinformation about vaccines. This misinformation can lead to vaccine hesitancy and cause a decrease in vaccine uptake. Knowledge of effective vaccine education strategies is vital for increasing vaccine uptake, especially in college students. This review will summarize literature that addresses effective vaccine education strategies. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify knowledge, barriers, and attitudes towards vaccine uptake in college students. Peer-reviewed sources were collected through the following databases: PubMed, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Journal of Public Health. Keywords used for each database included: knowledge, attitudes, practices‚ barrier to vaccine education/uptake, and vaccine education. Most sources retrieved were primary sources.  RESULTS: Data from the studies indicated that social encouragement, access to healthcare professionals, and community conversation are effective strategies to increase vaccine uptake. Interventions that were not closely engaging with individuals, such as text message reminders, email reminders, and non-financial incentives were ineffective and not associated with an increase in vaccine uptake.

CONCLUSION: Having more resources or programs available to the public as well as eliminating barriers to vaccination can be done to help individuals to gain more trust in health professionals and increase vaccine uptake.

 

Food Insecurity Among Undergraduate Students. Presenting Author: Beau Lucas; Co-Author: Ashton Henry

Undergraduate college students in the United States face many nonacademic challenges on the pathway to achieving personal educational goals with specific regard to food insecurity (FI) hindering student success, ultimately imploring increased attention for research and legislative solutions (Laska, Fleischhacker, Petsoulis, Bruening, & Stebleton, 2020; Waters-Bailey, McGraw, & Barr, 2019). In 2020, research approximated that 33 percent of all US college students faced some type of FI, and it is presumably apparent as the economy continues to struggle during the pandemic that the numbers will only continue to heighten as students continue toward their academic goals (Laska et al.). While the federal legislation is concerned with rising student FI and is actively modifying policies and regulations for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, meal plan options, and overall college affordability, many students continue to face decreased health and wellness while confronting academic barriers (Laska et al., 2020). Often, higher education institutions may not recognize the signs of FI among post-secondary students and despite government support programs, college student FI rates continue to markedly surpass the national average of US adult populations (Freudenberg, Goldrick-Rab, & Poppendieck, 2019; Laska et al., 2020; Phillips, McDaniel, & Croft, 2018). To objectively measure the growing undergraduate FI statistics, psychometric tool options for students are extremely limited as multiple college campus studies are utilizing the USDA Food Security Survey Modules to facilitate the demands analysis for student's campus wide (Laska et al., 2020; Nikolaus, Ellison, & Nickols-Richardson, 2019). It is of value to formally initiate a long-term systematic and objective approach to address FI in undergraduates with consistent psychometric tools and strategies to facilitate progressive solutions including a food pantry, as every student deserves success in attaining a college degree without additional nonacademic challenges, including acquiring subsistence needs (Nikolaus, Ellison, & Nickols-Richardson, 2020; Perry, 2018).

 

Osteoporosis Knowledge Among Healthcare Workers. Presenting Author: Taylor Mansour; Co-author: Mary Amanda Haskins, Ph.D.

Osteoporosis (OP) is porous bone disease that most individuals do not know they are at risk of. The National Osteoporosis Foundation refers to OP as the cause of weak bones that easily break from falls or minor bumps (1). Previous studies on people's OP knowledge led to many separate researchers concluding that most know very little about OP, or the risk factors, regardless of their profession. Such as 67 nurses who were given a true or false test relating to their knowledge of OP. Their knowledge was found to be insufficient as some questions were only answered correctly by a single nurse, and no one nurse scored a 100% on the questionnaire (2). Another study, led by Wan, includes Malaysian medical students ranging in ages 18 to 40. They were given a questionnaire about OP, health belief and calcium intake. Knowledge was moderate on OP and health belief. Then consumption of dairy products was low amongst the students (3). We aim to study healthcare students' and professional's knowledge of OP, through a safe and anonymous questionnaire due to previous studies findings proving less than desirable knowledge on OP. Their privacy will be protected and confidential as we are not asking for any identifiers. Choosing healthcare students allows us to compare our results to fellow studies, as well as observe the future healthcare workers knowledge on a disease which is more common than cancer. Our observational study asks them to fill out the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) through Qualtrics to the best of their abilities. It will take a participant approximately 10 to 15 minutes to complete the survey. Through looking at the data taken by Qualtrics, it will group and prepare the data for us. As Qualtrics takes the data and divides it into categories for you, while still allowing you to receive and look at the raw data as well. We will use descriptive statistics to analyze meaningful differences between perceptions of knowledge and demographics, as well as type of health program of participants; additionally, knowledge outcomes will be reported, and we will examine correlations between high scoring outcomes and type of health program. We will also investigate, if found, misperceptions or gaps in knowledge and variables associated with those responses that are inaccurate. Our sample will be made up of healthcare students and professionals from the United States, whom we hope to have share the questionnaire with their colleagues resulting in a snowball effect, leading to more participants in our study.

 

Room K: Junior Scientists/Clinicians Virtual Poster

 

Causal Inference with Mendelian Randomization to Explore Risk Factors of Diabetes. Presenting Author: Amulya Agrawal

Several studies have reported contributing factors for both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, but their major causes have been contradictory in the results of past studies. To provide accurate answers, Mendelian Randomization is used in this study to identify different exposure factors and measure their effects to see if either type of diabetes occurs as a result. Even with a plethora of treatments being utilized by individuals internationally, diabetes continues to be one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Caused by a deficiency of insulin, a hormone created and released by the pancreas, diabetes renders individuals unable to effectively utilize glucose. With low amounts of insulin, cells cannot allow glucose to enter them and be used as energy for the body, leaving high amounts of glucose to build up in the bloodstream. Several factors presented in past research studies have been suggested as links to causing this insulin deficiency, resulting in diabetes. However, it is important to remember that there are two types of diabetes present: Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. This report uses Mendelian Randomization to analyze contributing factors of Type 1 and 2 diabetes and explain the roles of confounds and genetics in the pathogenesis of the disease.

 

Relationship Between the PH and Surface Area of Pond Water in and Around Columbia, MO. Presenting Author: Emma Williams; Co-Authors: Sierra Woodall, Heaven Thompson, Julia A. Moffitt, Ph.D.

Purpose: Environmental pollutants and climate change are having an increasingly negative impact on the chemical environment of freshwater ponds. Most of these pollutants are acidic in nature and negatively impacts the health of fish and plants. This would suggest that smaller bodies of water may be more vulnerable to acidic pollutants. As such, we hypothesized that there would be a direct relationship between surface area and pH of freshwater ponds. Methods: Nine pond sites were selected in different areas within the city limits of Columbia, Missouri. A pH meter was obtained and calibrated at each location of the bond with a two-point calibration method. Three samples from each pond were tested and the pH levels and temperature were recorded. Surface area was measured by Google Earth. Data was analyzed by graphing the correlation between pH levels and surface area in hectares of each pond. Results: Correlation analysis between the pH and surface area was r2 = 0.02. There was one outlier observed within the data points. When the outlier was removed the correlation, coefficient increased drastically to r2 = 0.65. Conclusion: When the largest surface area pond was removed from the analysis, our data suggests that there was a strong correlation between pH levels and surface area. These data suggest that the ecosystem of small ponds may be more vulnerable to environmental changes.

 

Face touching and mask touching are related. Presenting Author: Brittney M Eaton, Co-Authors: Victoria La, Emily McCutcheon, Kaylee Morton, Julia Moffitt, Ph.D.

Face touching is a concern with spreading disease, especially in recent times with the 2019 Novel Coronavirus, Covid-19. Current recommendations from the CDC suggest that wearing a face mask will help communities reduce the spread of Covid-19 when worn correctly and consistently in public settings. Current studies suggest that wearing a face mask decreases the risk of self-inoculation by reducing face touching behaviors. Taking all the above into consideration this led to the hypothesis: Wearing a face mask will reduce face touching behaviors. One limitation that was encountered during this study was the mask wearing ordinance, enacted by the City of Columbia and Stephens College. Due to this, unmasked baseline data was unable to be observed. Therefore, the hypothesis was revised: There is a relationship between face and mask touching behaviors. In order to test the second hypothesis, twelve college students were observed for one hour while the number of face touches and mask touches was recorded. The number of face and mask touches varied widely among the observed participants. A correlation coefficient between mask touching and face touching revealed a strong positive relationship R (10) = .87, p< .05. As mask touching increases, so too does face touching. There was a shared variance (r2) of 76%. The data suggested that wearing a mask does not influence self-inoculation behaviors as individuals who tended to engage in mask touching behaviors also touched their face. Since the stress level of the participants may play a role, future studies should observe participants in a wider variety of setting and assess stress levels during observations.

 

Room L: Healthcare & Therapeutic Interventions Virtual Platform & Poster

 

Physician Assistants: A Beneficial Addition to the ICU. Presenting Author: Sydney Cacy

The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of Physician Assistants (PAs) to deliver quality patient care is a critical care setting. In addition, the purpose of this study is to educate the population on the scope and abilities of physician assistants to prove them to be adequate in a critical care setting. It was hypothesized that the literature would indicate that PAs are a valuable member of the intensive care unit health care team and that physicians will prefer to have a PA working under them so that more patients can be cared for in a timely and accurate manner. Several articles were searched to find data focused on physician assistants in critical care. Data was pulled from several different sources including reviews, peer reviewed journals and articles and figures/ images. PubMed and the Stephens College library database were used to find the articles. Nine of the sources used were primary sources, the others were secondary reviews. It was found that PAs have a positive impact on patient stay, patient satisfaction, and patient outcome. In 2003, a law was passed that allowed resident doctors to only work 80 hours a week. This brought up the problem of who was going to care for the patients the rest of the time? There was considerable concern on how to meet patient needs. It was then that more mid-level health care providers such as PAs became important to internal medicine. Physician assistants are capable and useful in a critical/intensive care setting. It is a practical decision for healthcare organizations to look in to hiring more physician assistants in internal medical specifically to critical care. It has also been found that physicians prefer to have some type of midlevel provider working with them to ensure quality and timely patient care.

 

Examining the effectiveness of equine assisted therapy (EAT) on Autism-Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in children and adolescents. Presenting Author: Morgan E. Puckett

Introduction: Equine assisted therapies (EAT) have increased in popularity over the past ten to fifteen years. Due to the increasing popularity, researchers have begun studying their effectiveness in treating certain mental health disorders. The purpose of this review was to look specifically at the effectiveness of EAT on mental health disorders such as autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Methods: Studies that were included in this review include studies that were published within the past ten years. The resources that were used to search for articles and previous studies include primarily PubMed using the keywords, equine assisted therapy, hippotherapy, autism-spectrum disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, children and adolescents. Results: Overall, data from studies show that EAT is effective in assisting children and adolescents with ASD improve their social and motor function. As for children with ADHD, there are far fewer studies compared to the research done for children with autism, however, data indicated a significant therapeutic effect in using EAT in children with ADHD Conclusions: From the research that has been reviewed, it is overall a positive experience and therapeutic benefit was attained using EAT in individuals with ASD and ADHD. In conclusion, EAT is an effective way to socialize and assist in mobility and function in children with ASD and ADHD. The protocols for EAT only vary in participant age ranges and time spent in therapy sessions. Some recommendations to increase dependability in this therapy would include large multi-center randomized control trials in ASD and ADHD.

 

Assessing Stress and Stress Mitigation Strategies in Physician Assistant Students. Presenting Author: Saffron B. Lancaster; Co-Author: Zeynep Avci, DPT

There is growing concern for extreme stress and consequent burnout among healthcare professionals. Physician Assistants (PA) appear to be increasingly relied upon to deliver primary care services in the current healthcare environment. Pre-professional healthcare students, especially medical students, have been well-studied and have shown to be at an increased risk for depression, anxiety, and burnout compared to the general population.

Although less studied, PA students show similar trends in experiencing burnout. Burnout not only results in a low quality of life and poor mental health of these healthcare professionals, but also affects patient outcomes.

Qualitative research on PA student wellness can add to the understanding of sources of burnout, and the role of interventions aimed at supporting overall wellness. This qualitative study will aim to identify (1) the extent the three features of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, professional efficacy) exist in PA students (2) stress mitigating activities that PA students employ, and (3) whether PA students who report physically active lifestyles score differently on burnout and stress outcomes than those who do not. The study is important to aid the development of future wellness programs aimed at mitigating stress and burnout in PA students.

 

Call for Abstracts

The School of Health Sciences sought abstracts for the Spring Health Science Research Conference at Stephens College, featuring all areas of the School of Health Sciences. 

Students, faculty and staff were encouraged to submit.

Abstracts were due by Monday, March 22, 2021. Abstracts should be a 300-word summary of your research idea. Abstracts of accepted submissions will appear in the program brochure. The abstract should not include graphics, pictures, or graphs. Notification of acceptance and programming will occur between March 25 and April 1.

The abstract submission deadline has passed and we are no longer accepting submissions. Bookmark this page for next year’s conference!

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